What is CNC machining?
Dec 05, 2019

CNC machining

Generally CNC machining refers to computer-controlled precision machining, CNC machining lathes, CNC machining milling machines, CNC machining boring and milling machines, etc.


CNC is also called computer gong, CNCCH or CNC machine tool. It is actually a name from Hong Kong. Later it was introduced to the Pearl River Delta in mainland China. It is actually a CNC milling machine. This is a new type of processing technology. The main job is to compile processing programs, that is, to turn the original manual work into computer programming. Of course, you need to have experience in manual processing.

Determination of CNC machining routes

NC lathe feed processing route refers to the path that the turning tool moves from the tool setting point (or fixed origin of the machine tool) until it returns to that point and ends the machining program, including the path of cutting processing and non-cutting such as cutting in and out Empty travel path.

The feed route for finishing is basically performed along the contour of its parts. Therefore, the focus of determining the feed route is to determine the feed route for rough machining and empty stroke.

In CNC lathe processing, the determination of processing routes generally follows the following principles.

① The precision and surface roughness of the workpiece to be processed should be guaranteed.

② Make the processing route the shortest, reduce the idle travel time, and improve the processing efficiency.

③ Simplify the workload of numerical calculation and simplify the processing procedures.

④ For some reusable programs, subroutines should be used.

CNC pros and cons

CNC machining has the following advantages:

① Reduce the number of tooling a lot, and do not need complicated tooling to process parts with complex shapes. If you want to change the shape and size of the part, you only need to modify the part processing program, which is suitable for new product development and modification.

② Stable processing quality, high processing accuracy and high repeat accuracy, adapt to the processing requirements of the aircraft.

③ The production efficiency is higher in the case of multi-variety and small batch production, which can reduce the time for production preparation, machine tool adjustment and process inspection, and reduce the cutting time due to the use of the optimal cutting amount.

④ It can process complex profiles that are difficult to process by conventional methods, and even machining parts that cannot be observed.

The disadvantage of NC machining is that the cost of machine tools and equipment is high, requiring a high level of maintenance personnel.

CNC machining

NC machining refers to machining performed by CNC machining tools. CNC index controlled machine tools are programmed and controlled by CNC machining language, usually G code. The NC machining G code language tells the NC machine tool which Cartesian position coordinates are used, and controls the tool feed speed and spindle speed, as well as functions such as tool converters and coolants. CNC machining has great advantages over manual machining. For example, parts produced by CNC machining are very accurate and repeatable; CNC machining can produce parts with complex shapes that cannot be completed by manual machining. CNC machining technology has now been widely popularized. Most machining workshops have CNC machining capabilities. The most common CNC machining methods in typical machining workshops are CNC milling, CNC turning, and CNC EDM wire cutting (EDM wire cutting).

The tools for CNC milling are called CNC milling machines or CNC machining centers. A lathe that performs CNC turning is called a CNC turning center. NC machining G code can be manually programmed, but usually the machining workshop uses CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) software to automatically read CAD (Computer Aided Design) files and generate G code programs to control CNC machine tools.

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